The unmistakable success of Israeli and Turkish drones, as well as Israeli-made Harop stray munitions, implemented by Azerbaijan in the conflict between it and Armenia in Nagorno-Karabakh, highlight the interest that these inexpensive and very efficient systems now represent, but also the need to have adequate means to protect themselves against them. In this area, Russia seems to have a head start on the West, as a result of the numerous drone attacks launched on the Khmeimim air base which houses the Russian air force deployed in Syria, which put a strain on their close-range anti-aircraft protection systems.
While the first attacks using drones and rockets had some success, damaging more or less severely several aircraft on the base, the Russian forces have since strengthened their local anti-air defenses to guard against this type of strike. In this area, the TOR M2 short-range anti-aircraft system seems to have obtained the best results, greatly exceeding in efficiency the Pantsir S2 system yet designed specifically for this mission. It should be noted that since then new modifications and improvements have been made to the Russian Pantsir, and operator training and procedures have been modified to increase the effectiveness of these systems against drones and stray munitions.
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