Realizing the superiority of NATO air power, Russia never sought to match it, as the Soviet Union did. However, Moscow has always been determined to neutralize this military power which represents, according to the British military authorities, "80% of NATO's firepower". To achieve this, the Russian forces set up an interconnected multi-layer anti-aircraft defense system combining performance and equipment density. We have already processed Long Range Defense, represented by S350 systems, S400 et the future S500, as well as the medium-range defense, area of predilection BUK systems. Close air defense is not neglected despite the performance of long and medium range systems. It is made up of three families of systems, each with its own attributes.
The best-known Russian short-range anti-aircraft and anti-missile protection system in the media is the Pantsir-S1 system, meaning "shell" in Russian, identified by NATO as SA-22 GreyHound. This 8 × 8 truck-mounted system uses two 2mm 2A42M cannons at high rate of fire, as well as two sextuple missile launchers equipped with the 30E57 missile with a range of 6 km. The Pantsir S20 is intended to protect sensitive infrastructure against air strikes, cruise missiles and drones. The Pantsir S1 version is already in service concurrently with the S2 version in the Russian forces, and implements, and opens, a new, more efficient radar. A new version, identified Pantsir SM, will increase detection capabilities to 75 km and the 40 km engagement capability thanks to the new 57E6M-E missile. In addition to Russian forces, the Pantsir has been exported to 10 countries, and Serbia has also announced that it will acquire it soon. Russian forces operate more than 140 Pantsir S1 and S2 systems.
Digital system M1 / M2
TOR M1 / 2 is a short-range, high-mobility anti-aircraft system mounted on a 9A311 tracked armored vehicle for Russian forces. It consists of a K-band pulse Doppler PESA radar and 8 to 16 anti-aircraft missiles positioned in the center of the turret in 2 vertical launch cells. The missiles used are generally of the 9M331 family but can also be of the 9M338 / 9 family in bi or quad pack. Fully automatic, the system can engage up to 4 targets simultaneously with its missiles, at a distance of up to 15 km. The TOR ensures the protection of Russian mobile units, in particular combat units, as well as sensitive infrastructures, such as command posts or logistics zones. It has shown excellent performance in Syria by intercepting a large number of rockets and drones launched against Hmeimim airfield, partially compensating the observed failures of Pantsir against targets that are too small or too slow. TOR M1 / 2 is in service in 15 countries, and Russia operates more than 200 units today.
System 2K22 Tunguska
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