It is common knowledge that the European Structured Permanent Cooperation Program, or PESCO, which allows European countries to design and finance cooperative defense programs as soon as they host at least 3 members of the Union, had drawn the wrath of the American administration which felt that American companies should, they too have the right to participate in these programs. And both President Trump and Under Secretary for Military Acquisitions Ellen Lord had repeatedly threatened with sanction by the European Union if it did not yield to its demands, relying in this on NATO always conciliatory with Washington.
The situation was all the more complex as some countries, such as Sweden, Italy or the Netherlands, participate in federal defense programs in the United States, and others, such as Poland or Slovenia, are known to have a pro-American tropism going beyond their own attachment to the European Union. These countries, of course, were largely in favor of allowing US defense companies to participate in European programs, fearing sanctions that would undermine their transatlantic partnerships. The subject therefore seemed particularly complex, and one could legitimately fear that the European Union does not succumb to US pressure.
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